The adhesion of gaseous molecules, in extremely thin layers, to the surface of a solid. This adhesion is brought about by the imbalance in forces existing between the solid and the gaseous molecules. These attractive forces are known as Van der Waals forces.
Is a form of carbon which is extremely porous with little, if any, volatile material remaining in its structure. Activated carbon is different from activated charcoal. Activated charcoal has a relatively large amount of volatiles remaining in its structure.
To take in and make a part of the whole; to soak up.
The term vacuum is used to denote the a pressure below atmospheric. In referring to a "vacuum" it must be noted that it is the opposite of pressure; a high vacuum means a low pressure. A high or deep vacuum is farther from atmospheric pressure than a low vacuum, e.g. a low vacuum is near atmospheric pressure. Absolute vacuum, zero absolute pressure, as measured at sea level is 0 mm of mercury (0mm HgA or 0 Torr), or 29.92 inches of mercury (29.92" HgV). A standard efficiency activated carbon systems is regenerate at 74mm of mercury (74mm HgA) which is equal to 27 inches of mercury vacuum (27" HgV), or 90% of a absolute vacuum.
The volume of vapor/air removed by the vacuum system at a specified vacuum level. The vacuum capacity is usually measured in actual cubic feet per minute at a vacuum level.
In North America the emission limits are usually defined in terms of mass of hydrocarbon emitted per volume of liquid loaded at the loading rack, 80mg/l, 35mg/l, or 10mg/l (milligram of hydrocarbon per liter of product loaded). This is an average measurement and must be tested for over a period of time. The U.S. E.P.A. specifies a six hour test as a minimum. In European Union (E.U.) the majority of the countries have adopted a mass emitted per volume emitted. Typically this is 35 grams of hydrocarbon emitted per normal cubic meter vented (35g/Nm3). The older United States standard of 35mg/l is roughly equivalent to the E.U. standard of 35g/Nm3. In Germany, a member of the E.U., the standard of 150mg/Nm3 has been adopted. This standard, known as the TA Luft is considerably more stringent than the other emission limits mentioned.